Energy is an inevitable requirement where we want development to take place. Many naturally occurring phenomenons contribute to producing this energy without damaging the environment. They are called renewable energy sources and they help to avoid pollution; both in urban and inaccessible locations on large and small scales. They form a sort of cycle without the deduction of any resource to generate the energy.
10. Tidal Power
The tidal power is not a very popular energy source, but has immense potential of becoming one in the near future. Tidal stream generators and barrage generation make use of tidal power. It is Eco-friendly and does not harm the environment at all. It follows the same principle as wind turbines, but instead of air, the generators rotate in water. Unlike wind and solar energy, tides can be predicted. Since time immemorial, tide mills have been driven directly from the relative motions of the Earth–Moon system and to a lesser extent from the Earth–Sun system. Lunar Energy, a British company was the first to establish a tidal farm in the coast of Pembrokshire in Wales, providing electricity to thousands of houses.
9. Wave Power
Predicting the direction of ocean and wave is a very difficult job, but is not impossible. Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy for pumping or desalinating water and generating electricity. In Europe, wave farms have been introduced, using floating Pelamis Wave Energy converters. They use a floating buoyed device and generate energy through a snaking motion, or by mechanical movement from the wave’s peaks and troughs. Wave power is not the same as the diurnal flux of tidal power and the steady gyre of ocean currents, although it is confused to be so often. We have been pursuing this technology since 1890 and the world’s first commercial wave farm is based in Portugal, at the Aguçadora Wave Park, which consists of three 750 kilowatt Pelamis devices.
8. Solar Power
Producing electricity by making use of the sun’s energy and the photovoltaic (PV) cells is called the Solar Technology. Solar cells are becoming more efficient, transportable and even flexible, allowing for easy installation. Let it be a calculator powered by a single solar cell or off-grid homes powered by photovoltaic disarray; PV can power applications of all sizes. The 1973 oil crisis stimulated a rapid rise in the production of PV during the 1970s and early 1980s. Steadily falling oil prices during the early 1980s, however, led to a reduction in funding for photovoltaic R&D and a discontinuation of the tax credits associated with the Energy Tax Act of 1978. These factors moderated growth to approximately 15% per year from 1984 through 1996. Since the mid-1990s, leadership in the PV sector has shifted from the US to Japan and Germany.
7. Wind Power
Wind farms installed on agricultural land or grazing areas, have one of the lowest environmental impacts of all energy sources. Wind turbines are used to convert wind energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Wind energy has historically been used directly to propel sailing ships or converted into mechanical energy for pumping water or grinding grain, but the principal application of wind power today is the generation of electricity. Spain, Portugal, Germany, Ireland; Europe is leading the world in the production of offshore wind power. United States and China’s priority was on land wind resources where construction costs are lower but transmission costs are less where population centers along coastlines are near offshore wind sources.
This is the most widely used form of renewable energy. The gravitation force of falling water is the key point in hydroelectricity generation. In remote areas, small scale hydro plants are installed in rivers and streams with little effect to the fish or environment. Instead of dams to diverge the water, water wheels generate energy for specific industrial purposes. Dedicated hydroelectric projects are often built to provide the substantial amounts of electricity needed for aluminium electrolytic plants, for example. In Suriname, the Brokopondo Reservoir was constructed to provide electricity for the Alcoa aluminium industry. New Zealand’s Manapouri Power Station was constructed to supply electricity to the aluminium smelter at Tiwai Point.
5. Radiant Energy
99% of the cost of normal electricity can be saved by the use of radiant energy. It performs the same functions, but does not possess behavior identical to electricity. The Methernitha Community in Switzerland currently has 5 or 6 working models of fuel less, self-running devices that tap this energy. Nikola Tesla’s magnifying transmitter, T. Henry Moray’s radiant energy device, Edwin Gray’s EMA motor, and Paul Baumann’s Testatika machine all run on radiant energy. Fractionation is a method of collecting natural energy from surroundings or extracting it from electricity. Nikola Tesla built one of the earliest wireless telephones to be based on radiant energy. The resonances of the transmitters and receivers of the device were tuned to the same frequency, allowing them to communicate.
4. Geothermal Power
Geothermal power extracts earthly energy through natural processes providing heat to either a single residential unit or producing energy through a geothermal power plant. Its cost effectiveness, reliability, and environmental friendliness has no longer limited it to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Home heating has encouraged the range and size of viable resources to expand considerably. The largest group of geothermal power plants in the world is located at The Geysers, a geothermal field in California, United States. Most of the cost of electrical plants goes to drilling since it does not require any fuel. At present 24 countries are making use of this technology and potential sites are into consideration.
Living and recently dead biological material that can be used as fuel or for industrial production can be classified as biomass. Dead trees, branches, yard clippings, woodchips bio-fuel, biodegradable wastes, many types of plants including miscanthus, switch grass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil), all come under the flag of biomass. The type of plant affects the process, although the end products are pretty much the same. This industry is growing, reducing the reliance on oil by more than one million barrels per year, and by recycling sugar cane and wood waste, preserves landfill space in urban communities. 0.5 percent of the U.S. electricity supply comes from biomass power generating establishments.
2. Compressed Natural Gas
If you need fossil fuel replacement for gasoline, diesel, or propane, Compressed Natural Gas is the solution for you. It is cleaner and safer to use as it diffuses easily into the surroundings if leaked. However, burning it does release a few greenhouse gases in the air. CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles (gasoline/CNG). These are becoming widely known in Europe and South America due to increasing gasoline costs. Light-duty passenger vehicles and pickup trucks, medium-duty delivery trucks, transit and school buses, and trains are also making use of CNG as a result ofhigh fuel prices and environmental concerns.
1. Nuclear Power
Nuclear fission is used to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions. Utility scale reactors are use to produce steam which is then converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion. Some say that Nuclear power reduces carbon emissions and increases energy security by decreasing dependence on foreign oil while others argue that nuclear power is a potentially dangerous energy source. Much debate is going on about its usage although in 2007 14% of the world’s electricity came fromnuclear power; US, France and Japan playing a major role in this. France reprocesses its nuclear waste to reduce its mass and make more energy. Reprocessing can potentially recover up to 95% of the remaining uranium and plutonium in spent nuclear fuel, putting it into new mixed oxide fuel.
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